How Connectivity Causes Conflict

Mark Leonard

September 2021 Manuscript in English Current Affairs

“Mark Leonard has reshaped how we look at the world.” — WILL HUTTON

Since the Cold War, global leaders have been integrating the world’s economy, transport and communications and eliminating borders to reach an ideal: to make war impossible. In this way, these same leaders have unwittingly created a formidable arsenal of weapons for new kinds of conflict. This new-found rise in nationalism is not a bump in the road, but part of the paving.

As a leading authority on international relations, Mark Leonard’s work has placed him in the rooms where our futures are being decided, from Facebook HQ and facial recognition labs in China to meetings with world leaders to advise on trends in geopolitics. In pursuing an understanding of the ways that globalisation has broken its promise to make our world safer and more successful, Leonard explores how we might wrestle a more hopeful future from an age of unpeace.


“Mark Leonard occupies an important place in the world of ideas. He is an unrepentant globalist, cosmopolitan and liberal, who believes deeply in the values of openness and connectedness that have powered so much progress over the last three quarters of a century. He sees Europe as the most advanced form of international cooperation ever attempted – and achieved. He wants a world that resembles Europe. So how does he make sense of the turn to nationalism evident in so much of the world today, amplified by the Covid pandemic? He’s writing a book that mixed personal reflections, historical analysis and passionate argument. I look forward to reading it.”
– Fareed Zakaria