How Connectivity Causes Conflict

Mark Leonard

September 2021 Manuscript in English Current Affairs

“Mark Leonard has reshaped how we look at the world.” — Will Hutton

Since the Cold War, global leaders have been integrating the world’s economy, transport and communications and eliminating borders to reach an ideal: to make war impossible. In this way, these same leaders have unwittingly created a formidable arsenal of weapons for new kinds of conflict. This new-found rise in nationalism is not a bump in the road, but part of the paving.

As a leading authority on international relations, Mark Leonard’s work has placed him in the rooms where our futures are being decided, from Facebook HQ and facial recognition labs in China to meetings with world leaders to advise on trends in geopolitics. In pursuing an understanding of the ways that globalisation has broken its promise to make our world safer and more successful, Leonard explores how we might wrestle a more hopeful future from an age of unpeace.


“Full of fresh – and often surprising – ideas.”– Niall Ferguson, author of The Square and the Tower and DOOM 

“Compulsively readable, Mark Leonard’s globe-trotting book not only offers us a fascinating and disturbing panorama, it redefines realism for an age of massive and toxic connectivity. An essential course in geopolitical self-help.”– Adam Tooze, Professor of History, Colombia University and author of CRASHED

“One of those rare books that defines the terms of our conversation about our times.”– Michael Ignatieff, President and Rector, Central European University

“We now understand that we live and must live between the duelling utopias of unrestricted globalization and national sovereignty.  The task is to make the best of our connections, and here Mark Leonard offers a creative and clarifying way forward.”– Timothy Snyder, author of On Tyranny

The Age of Unpeace is strikingly original, developing new language and a new framework to capture and analyze the way the world’s progress and perils are inextricably intertwined.” –  Anne-Marie Slaughter

“One of Mark Leonard’s great strengths is his sensitivity to the zeitgeist. This book is no exception. A highly readable book packed full of insights and ideas about what needs to be done.”–  Martin Jacques, author of When China Rules The World

“Mark Leonard occupies an important place in the world of ideas. He is an unrepentant globalist, cosmopolitan and liberal, who believes deeply in the values of openness and connectedness that have powered so much progress over the last three quarters of a century.”– Fareed Zakaria